Their name comes from the fact that they all have a flat second degree, like the Phrygian mode. You can turn any mode or scale into a Neapolitan simply by flattening the second degree.
Middle Eastern Scales
Here the best point of reference for a Western musician would be the Carnatic system of Hindustani music, which uses a set of 72 basic scales called melas.
Jazz and Blues Scales
Although they started out with our conventional major and minor scales, jazz and blues styles of music have also evolved their own characteristic modal scales. The characteristic features of these scales are again the various inflections of ordinary scale notes, referred to as blue notes. In the blues hexatonic, seven-note, and nine-note scales, these are the notes Eb, F#, and Bb.
Eastern European Scales
The Hungarian Major has a distinctive sharp second and fourth and a flat seventh. The Hungarian Minor is basically the same as the harmonic minor scale except that the fourth has been sharpened. Gypsy I is the same as the natural minor scale, but again with the fourth sharpened. Gypsy II is like a regular major scale except that the second and sixth degrees have been lowered by a semitone.
Ancient Egyptian Pentatonic Scales
The music of ancient Egypt reputedly used a scale that was basically the same as pentatonic mode 4, except that the second and fifth degrees were flattened. This resulted in the so-called hemitonic five-note scales—that is, pentatonic scales that use semitones (as opposed to anhemitonic scales, which are pentatonic scales without semitones).
Balinese Pentatonic Scales
Japanese Pentatonic Scales
You’ll find similar hemitonic variants in traditional Japanese music
Whole Tone Scale
Some types of exotic scales result from the use of certain characteristic types of harmony. A good example is the wholetone scale. As its name suggests, this scale is built up entirely from whole tones. Every chord within that scale is an augmented triad (was popular 20th-century Impressionist). Because of the lack of semitones, and therefore the absence of a leading note, there is no sense of a tonic in the whole tone scale. To impart at least some sense of a tonic, the leading whole tone scale is sometimes used. The semitone below C suggests a leading note and therefore persuades the listener that the scale does have a tonic.